In the argument of design, especially of design thinking, an overarching objective of prototyping is to get feedback and learn from building and implementing a product or service (Rodriguez & Jacoby, 2007; Lande & Leifer, 2009; Jensen et al., 2015). However, prototyping has multiple functions and play different roles in different contexts (Beaudouin-Lafon & Mackay, 2007), and general purposes of prototyping are identified as three ways: exploration, evaluation and communication (Blomkvist & Holmlid, 2011; e.g., Schneider, 1996; Buchenau & Suri, 2000; Smith & Dunckley, 2002; Voss & Zomerdijk, 2007). For this research, however, replace the term, communication with ‘persuasion’ (e.g., Sanders, 2013) as communication is important also for exploration and evaluation. The word, communication is used to emphasise the communication with external stakeholders such as clients. Thus, ‘persuasion’ as Sanders (2013) uses is a less confusing term.Therefore, this research calls the three purposes exploration, evaluation and persuasion respectively. Communication is regarded as a factor underlying the achievement of the purposes. In some literature, the difference of purposes are emphasised in the terminology, piloting and prototyping, as the former mainly works for exploration and the latter for persuasion (e.g., NESTA, 2011).
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 Rodriguez and Jacoby (2007) assert that prototyping is “[a] process of accelerating feedback and failure” (p.57).